|Who is it?||Discoverer of Argon|
|Birth Day||November 12, 1842|
|Birth Place||Langford Grove, Maldon, Essex, England, British|
|Age||177 YEARS OLD|
|Died On||30 June 1919(1919-06-30) (aged 76)\nTerling Place, Witham, Essex, England|
|Alma mater||Trinity College, Cambridge|
|Known for||Discovery of argon Rayleigh waves Rayleigh scattering Rayleigh criterion Rayleigh's criterion Rayleigh–Ritz method Duplex theory Sound theory Rayleigh flow Rayleigh problem Rayleigh-Plesset equation Rayleigh–Schrödinger perturbation theory Rayleigh–Taylor instability Rayleigh–Jeans law Rayleigh's equation|
|Awards||1865 Smith's Prize 1882 Royal Medal 1890 De Morgan Medal 1894 Matteucci Medal 1895 Faraday Lectureship Prize 1899 Copley Medal 1904 Nobel Prize for Physics 1905 Albert Medal 1913 Elliott Cresson Medal 1914 Rumford Medal|
|Institutions||Trinity College, Cambridge|
|Academic advisors||Edward John Routh Sir George Stokes|
|Notable students||J. J. Thomson Jagdish Chandra Bose|
"When I was bringing out my Scientific Papers I proposed a motto from the Psalms, "The Works of the Lord are great, sought out of all them that have pleasure therein." The Secretary to the Press suggested with many apologies that the reader might suppose that I was the Lord."
Strutt was born on 12 November 1842 at Langford Grove in Maldon, Essex. In his early years he suffered from frailty and poor health. He attended Harrow School, before going on to the University of Cambridge in 1861 where he studied mathematics at Trinity College, Cambridge. He obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree (Senior Wrangler and 1st Smith's prize) in 1865, and a Master of Arts in 1868. He was subsequently elected to a Fellowship of Trinity. He held the post until his marriage to Evelyn Balfour, daughter of James Maitland Balfour, in 1871. He had three sons with her. In 1873, on the death of his father, John Strutt, 2nd Baron Rayleigh, he inherited the Barony of Rayleigh.
Lord Rayleigh was elected Fellow of the Royal Society on 12 June 1873, and served as President of the Royal Society from 1905 to 1908. From time to time Lord Rayleigh participated in the House of Lords; however, he spoke up only if politics attempted to become involved in science. He died on 30 June 1919, in Witham, Essex. He was succeeded, as the 4th Lord Rayleigh, by his son Robert John Strutt, another well-known Physicist.
He was the second Cavendish Professor of Physics at the University of Cambridge (following James Clerk Maxwell), from 1879 to 1884. He first described dynamic soaring by seabirds in 1883, in the British journal Nature. From 1887 to 1905 he was Professor of Natural Philosophy at the Royal Institution.
Around the year 1900 Lord Rayleigh developed the duplex (combination of two) theory of human sound localisation using two binaural cues, interaural phase difference (IPD) and interaural level difference (ILD) (based on analysis of a spherical head with no external pinnae). The theory posits that we use two primary cues for sound lateralisation, using the difference in the phases of sinusoidal components of the sound and the difference in amplitude (level) between the two ears.
He held an interest in parapsychology and was an early member of the Society for Psychical Research (SPR). He was not convinced of spiritualism but remained open to the possibility of supernatural phenomena. Lord Rayleigh was the President of the SPR in 1919. He gave a presidential address the year of his death but did not come to any definite conclusions.
The lunar crater Rayleigh as well as the Martian crater Rayleigh were named in his honour. The asteroid 22740 Rayleigh was named after him on 1 June 2007. A type of surface waves are known as Rayleigh waves. The rayl, a unit of acoustic impedance, is also named for him. Lord Rayleigh was also awarded with (in chronological order):