Henry Hallett Dale

About Henry Hallett Dale

Who is it?: Physiologist & Pharmacologist
Birth Day: June 09, 1875
Birth Place: Islington, British
Died On: 23 July 1968(1968-07-23) (aged 93)\nCambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
Birth Sign: Cancer
Alma mater: University of Cambridge St Bartholomew's Hospital
Known for: Acetylcholine Dale's principle
Awards: FRS (1914) Royal Medal (1924) Knight Bachelor (1932) Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1936) Copley Medal (1937) Knight Grand Cross (1943) Order of Merit (1944) Freedom of the City (Dundee) (1947) Albert Medal (1956)
Fields: Pharmacology Physiology
Website: www.rigb.org/our-history/people/d/henry-hallett-dale

Henry Hallett Dale Net Worth

Henry Hallett Dale was bornon June 09, 1875 in Islington, British, is Physiologist & Pharmacologist. Sir Henry Hallett Dale was a British physiologist and pharmacologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1936 with German pharmacologist Otto Loewi “for their discoveries in the chemical transmission of nerve impulses”. Shortly after specializing in physiology and zoology from Trinity College, Cambridge he embarked on his research career at the Wellcome Physiological Research Laboratories. He received his medical degree from Cambridge in 1909 and eventually became the Director of the National Institute for Medical Research, London. He also served as Secretary and later President of the Royal Society. In his research career, he identified the compound histamine in animal tissues and determined that the chemical’s physiological effects such as the dilation of blood vessels and contraction of smooth muscles were similar to the symptoms of some allergic and anaphylactic reactions. He successfully isolated acetylcholine, established its occurrence in animal tissue, and confirmed its presence at nerve endings. His research established the role of acetylcholine in the chemical transmission of nerve impulses. He played a crucial role in promoting international standards for active biological substances like hormones, antitoxins, and vaccines. During his lifetime, he was honoured with Knighthood, the Order of Merit, and Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire.
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💰 Net worth: Under Review

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Awards and nominations:

Dale was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1914. He was knighted in 1932, receiving the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in 1943 and the Order of Merit in 1944. He served as President of the Royal Society from 1940 to 1945 and President of the Royal Society of Medicine from 1948 to 1950. The Sir Henry Dale Fellowships of the Wellcome Trust are named in his honour and the Society for Endocrinology awards the Dale Medal annually in his honour.

Biography/Timeline

1894

Henry Hallett Dale was born in Islington, London, to Charles James Dale, a pottery manufacturer from Staffordshire, and his wife, Frances Anne Hallett, daughter of a furniture manufacturer. Henry was the third of seven children, one of whom (his younger brother, Benjamin Dale) became an accomplished Composer and warden of the Royal Academy of Music. Henry was educated at the local Tollington Park College and then The Leys School Cambridge (one of the school's houses is named after him) and in 1894 entered Trinity College, Cambridge, working under the Physiologist John Langley. For a few months in 1903 he also studied under Paul Ehrlich in Frankfurt, Germany. Also in 1903, Dale assisted Ernest Starling and william Bayliss in the vivisection of a dog, by removing the dog's pancreas and then killing the dog with a knife, which ultimately led to the events of the Brown Dog affair. Dale received his Doctor of Medicine degree from Cambridge in 1909.

1904

In 1904, Dale had married his first cousin Elen Harriet Hallett and had a son and two daughters. One of their daughters, Alison Sarah Dale, married Alexander R. Todd, who too won the Nobel Prize and served as President of the Royal Society from 1940 to 1945.

1914

Dale was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1914. He was knighted in 1932, receiving the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in 1943 and the Order of Merit in 1944. He served as President of the Royal Society from 1940 to 1945 and President of the Royal Society of Medicine from 1948 to 1950. The Sir Henry Dale Fellowships of the Wellcome Trust are named in his honour and the Society for Endocrinology awards the Dale Medal annually in his honour.

1938

Between 1938 and 1960 Dale was Chairman of the Wellcome Trust.

1940

During the 1940s Dale was embroiled in the scientific debate over the nature of signaling at the synapse. Dale and others believed that signaling at the synapse was chemical, while John Carew Eccles and others believed that the synapse was electrical. It was later found that most synaptic signalling is chemical, but there are some synapses that are electrical.

2001

Dale also originated the scheme used to differentiate neurons according to the neurotransmitters they release. Thus, neurons releasing noradrenaline (known in the United States as norepinephrine) are called noradrenergic, neurons releasing GABA are GABAergic, and so on. This is called Dale's principle (sometimes erroneously referred to as Dale's Law), one interpretation of which holds that each neuron releases only one type of neurotransmitter. This particular interpretation of Dale's principle has been shown to be false, as many neurons release neuropeptides and amino acids in addition to classical neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine or biogenic amines (see cotransmission) (Bear, et al. 2001). This finding, that numerous neurotransmitters can be released by the same neuron, is referred to as the "coexistence principle." This phenomenon was most popularized by the Swedish neuroanatomist and neuropharmacologist Tomas Hökfelt, who is considered to be the "Father of the Coexistence Principle."