Best known as the President of India's Janata (People's) Party (from 1990 to 2013), he led the merging of his political organization with the Bharatiya Janata Party. An expert on economics, he also served as Chairman of his country's Commission on Labour Standards and International Trade.
After graduating from Hindu College, University of Delhi with a degree in mathematics, he studied at the Indian Statistical Institute and went on to earn a PhD in economics from Harvard University.
His numerous publications include Terrorism in India: A Strategy of Deterrence for India's National Security and Financial Architecture and Economic Development in China and India.
His marriage to Roxna Parsi Swamy resulted in two daughters: Gitanjali Swamy and Suhasini Haider.
He was recommended by Nobel Prize-winning economist Amartya Sen for a professorship at the Delhi School of Economics. He also taught at the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, and at Harvard University.