Served as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1895 to 1909.
He was admitted to the bar in Albany in 1859.
He was known for frequently using substantive process to invalidate regulations of business and property while on the Court.
His older brother was Wheeler Hazard Peckham, a lawyer who helped prosecute Boss Tweed.
He was nominated to the Supreme Court by President Grover Cleveland.