Born in Daye County, Hubei, Peng started working in August 1974. He is a member of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and has attained a doctorate and the rank of researcher. During the 1970s, he served in various posts in his home county. In 1979, he entered the department of philosophy of Peking University. Beginning in 1983, he served in the Organization Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. In 1988, he became a secretary of the CPC Organization Department and the vice Director and later, Director of the CPC Party Development Research Institute. He also served as editor-in-chief of "Party Development Research", and Director of the research office of the CPC Organization Department. From 1993 to 1996, he pursued a master's degree at the international Business school of Hunan University. From 1996 to 2001, he studied at the management school of Sun Yat-sen University and obtained a doctorate. In 2001, he was appointed Director of the first cadres bureau and department committee member of the CPC Organization Department.
In 2013, Peng was appointed as the Communist Party Secretary of Guangxi. He was appointed as the Communist Party Secretary of Sichuan in March 2018.
Peng is a member of the 17th, 18th, and 19th Central Committees of the Communist Party of China.