|Who is it?||Founder of the Yuan dynasty in Mongolia and China,|
|Birth Day||September 23, 1215|
|Birth Place||Mongolia, Mongolian|
|Age||804 YEARS OLD|
|Died On||18 February 1294 (aged 78)\nDadu (Khanbaliq)|
|Reign||5 May 1260 – 18 February 1294|
|Coronation||5 May 1260|
|Burial||Burkhan Khaldun, Khentii Province|
|Consort||Tegulen Khatun Qoruqchin Khatun Chabi Khatun Dorbajin Khatun Hushijin Khatun Bayujin Khatun Nambui Khatun|
|Full nameEra datesPosthumous nameTemple name||Full name Mongolian:ᠬᠦᠪᠢᠯᠠᠢ Chinese: 忽必烈 Kublai Era dates 中統 (Zhōngtǒng) 1260–1264 至元 (Zhìyuán) 1264–1294 Posthumous name 聖德神功文武皇帝 (Emperor Shèngdé Shéngōng Wénwǔ) Temple name Shìzǔ (世祖) Setsen Khan (ᠰᠡᠴᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ) Mongolian:ᠬᠦᠪᠢᠯᠠᠢ Chinese: 忽必烈 Kublai 中統 (Zhōngtǒng) 1260–1264 至元 (Zhìyuán) 1264–1294 聖德神功文武皇帝 (Emperor Shèngdé Shéngōng Wénwǔ)Shìzǔ (世祖) Setsen Khan (ᠰᠡᠴᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ)|
|Burma||First Ngasaunggyan Pagan Second|
|Central Asia||Qara Khitai Khwarezm|
|China||Western Xia Jin Song Dali Ziqi|
|Other invasions||India Java Korea Tibet|
Maritime archaeologist Kenzo Hayashida led the investigation that discovered the wreckage of the second invasion fleet off the western coast of Takashima District, Shiga. His team's findings strongly indicate that Kublai rushed to invade Japan and attempted to construct his enormous fleet in one year, a task that should have taken up to five years. This forced the Chinese to use any available ships, including river boats. Most importantly, the Chinese, under Kublai's control, built many ships quickly in order to contribute to the fleets in both of the invasions. Hayashida theorizes that, had Kublai used standard, well-constructed ocean-going ships with curved keels to prevent capsizing, his navy might have survived the journey to and from Japan and might have conquered it as intended. In October 2011, a wreck, possibly one of Kublai's invasion craft, was found off the coast of Nagasaki. David Nicolle wrote in The Mongol Warlords, "Huge losses had also been suffered in terms of casualties and sheer expense, while the myth of Mongol invincibility had been shattered throughout eastern Asia." He also wrote that Kublai was determined to mount a third invasion, despite the horrendous cost to the economy and to his and Mongol prestige of the first two defeats, and only his death and the unanimous agreement of his advisers not to invade prevented a third attempt.
Under Kublai, direct contact between East Asia and Europe was established, made possible by Mongol control of the central Asian trade routes and facilitated by the presence of efficient postal services. In the beginning of the 13th century, Europeans and Central Asians – merchants, travelers, and missionaries of different orders – made their way to China. The presence of Mongol power allowed large numbers of Chinese, intent on warfare or trade, to travel to other parts of the Mongol Empire, all the way to Russia, Persia, and Mesopotamia.