Her first television appearances were in 2006 in the Canadian television series 11 Cameras and in the pilot episode of the short-lived American crime series Angela's Eyes. She also appeared in other Canadian productions, including the film comedy Breakfast with Scot (2007) and in the television series Falcon Beach (2007) and Wild Roses (2009). For her supporting role in Falcon Beach, she was nominated for a Gemini Award in 2007. In the 2010 miniseries Riverworld, based on a novel series of science fiction author Philip José Farmer, she played the role of the samurai warrior Tomoe Gozen.
In 2011 Goossen was in the eighth season of the crime series CSI: NY in the role of Officer Lauren Cooper. In the ninth season of the crime series NCIS, she played a recurring role as private Joan Matteson, a former acquaintance of the main character Leroy Jethro Gibbs. In 2012 she appeared in the first and only season of the sci-fi mystery series Alcatraz as Medical Examiner Nikki.
In February 2012 it was announced that Goossen would appear in the television series The Following opposite Kevin Bacon and James Purefoy in the major role FBI agent Jennifer Mason. However, she was released from the project in May 2012. In 2014 and 2015, she appeared in NBC's medical drama The Night Shift as Dr. Krista Bell-Hart.
In 2016, she played the role of Michelle, a Savior in the 13th episode of the 6th season of The Walking Dead and joined the cast of Nashville in a recurring role and performed several songs throughout her arc.