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Mother Douglas was born around 1700 to a well-to-do Edinburgh family named Marinet. She had three sisters and at least one brother, but nothing more is known of the family. By the time she was 17 she was already working as a prostitute in London under the name Douglas. She worked out of a house in St James's, Piccadilly and was praised by John Gay as "that inimitable Courtesan". She was on intimate terms with many influential people, both men and women, but had a particularly close friendship with John Williams (later 1st Earl FitzWilliam). At some point she took possession of the St. James's house and began to work as a procuress, choosing girls for their elegance, pleasant manners and sexual expertise.
By 1735, she had moved to Covent Garden, home to many of the famous brothels of the time. She took a house in the Little Piazza, to the east of the main piazza on the corner of Russell Street, that had recently been vacated by Betty Careless. As she had done in St James's, she decorated the house in opulent style and hired liveried servants to wait on her customers. The Covent Garden location meant that customers were plentiful. It also had the advantage of being close to the theatres; these supplied a continual flow of beautiful, but poor, actresses—who would supplement their incomes by working for Douglas. The customers coming from the many drinking dens and bagnios that surrounded the square were often drunk and rowdy. This led to disturbances at the house, and occasional raids and arrests.
In 1741, Douglas moved to the opposite side of the square into the vacant King's Head. This house was much larger, with a garden and running water supplied to the basement. Douglas made further improvements, installing a drain and cesspool, extending the water supply, and renovating the roof, chimneys, and staircases. This house was decorated to the highest standards with fine furniture, china, glass, and expensive paintings adorning the walls. She added a restaurant with liveried waiters to serve the guests. As well as paying high prices to enjoy the luxurious surroundings and hand-picked girls of her establishment, her patrons were able to take advantage of condoms manufactured by Jacobs in the Strand, presented in a silk bag and with a hefty markup. For those suffering from syphilis, she supplied Dr. Jean Misaubin's pillule.
Around 1746, her fortunes took a turn for the worse. Her house fell out of fashion with high society and a lower class of customer began to patronise the establishment. Douglas herself became pregnant; the child was thought to be Lord Fitzwilliam's and was the subject of much debate, although Rear Admiral Charles Holmes, another of Douglas' lovers, later turned out to be the father. Additionally, Douglas' health was beginning to fail.
By 1759, she was unable to continue Business, and the lease on the King's Head passed to a relative, Amelia Douglas. Jane was described as "much bloated by Drink and Debauch...her Legs swelled out of shape...suffering great discomfort". She died on 10 June 1761 leaving a considerable estate. The contents of her house were sold off by her friend, the auctioneer, Abraham Langford. Although there was a genuine Mother Cole, Douglas supposedly forms the prototype for Mother Cole in John Cleland's Fanny Hill, and together with Langford, those of Mrs. Cole and Mr. Smirk in Samuel Foote's The Mirror.