Kane has appeared in many commercials and programs such as Law & Order, One Life to Live, Guiding Light, Search for Tomorrow, and Plaza Sésamo. He has also been a host on the Nickelodeon series Rated K Update and has been the assistant Conductor of an interview program called Girl Talk In theatre, his credits include the role of the young Lucius in the Public Theater's production of Titus Andronicus, and two roles in James Lapine's Lincoln Center production of The Winter's Tale. He provided the singing voice of the character Aladdin, opposite Lea Salonga, in the 1992 film of the same name, as well as its sequels. In 1993, Kane teamed up again with Salonga to do a live version of "A Whole New World", the hit song from Aladdin, at the 65th Academy Awards.
In 1993, he played Arpad Laszlo in the Broadway revival of She Loves Me. He also played Tucker Wells in the season three episode "The Prom" of Buffy the Vampire Slayer, and provided Jonathan Levinson's singing voice in the episode "Superstar". On September 11, 2005, Kane was invited to a ceremony at Hong Kong Disneyland, the night before the theme park's opening. He performed the song "A Whole New World" from Aladdin with Cantopop star Joey Yung. As Caleb Kane, he released the song "This Close", which was played on the movie Devil's Pond. Then in 2004, he released his website with a message board to promote his album "This Day In History" with the first single "Go Mad" released in March 2006. Caleb has two versions of the video of this single and also another promotional video for "In Your Own Way", a song that was played on the show The Black Donnellys.
His first album, This Day in History, was released on July 1, 2008. In Fall 2008, he joined the FOX science-fiction series Fringe as a Writer and co-producer. After the completion of the second season, he left the show. He co-wrote the episodes: "The Cure" (co-written by co-executive Producer Felicia D. Henderson), "The No-Brainer" (co-written by co-executive Producer David H. Goodman), and "Inner Child" (co-written with Julia Cho). On June 7, 2011, it was announced that he was involved with the aborted reboot of Daredevil. Since 2014 Kane is a Producer on Black Sails.