Arnold Orville Beckman Net Worth

Arnold Orville Beckman was born on April 10, 1900 in Cullom, United States, is Chemist. Arnold Orville Beckman was a famous chemist, inventor and philanthropist from America. With a keen insight and eye for detail, Arnold always had a knack for solving problems. It was in his childhood that he chanced upon a textbook in chemistry and thus began his life-long association with the subject. While still in school, Beckman founded a business venture that analysed the composition of natural gas. While working at the Western Electric Company he gained an in-depth understanding of electronic circuits. He utilised his knowledge of chemistry and electronics to solve many problems in his later life. He developed the world’s first pH meter that was used to measure acidity of a given solution. He then created a device that could calculate the energy of light in visible, infra-red and UV spectrum. He modified the potentiometers used in the pH meter to develop the helipot that could be used in airplanes and ships. The chemist also worked with Californian government in their efforts to mitigate the harmful effects of Los Angeles smog. He was also involved in the Manhattan Project, which created the nuclear bombs. Orville invented the dosimeter which could indicate the levels of exposure to ionizing radiation. The contributions of this inventor to the human race are numerous; read on to know more about his life and works.
Arnold Orville Beckman is a member of Scientists

Age, Biography and Wiki

Who is it? Chemist
Birth Day April 10, 1900
Birth Place Cullom, United States
Age 119 YEARS OLD
Died On May 18, 2004(2004-05-18) (aged 104)\nLa Jolla, California
Birth Sign Taurus
Alma mater University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, California Institute of Technology
Awards Hoover Medal (1981) Tolman Award (1985) Vermilye Medal (1987) National Medal of Technology (1988) National Medal of Science (1989) Presidential Citizens Medal (1989) Bower Award (1992) Public Welfare Medal (1999) Othmer Gold Medal (2000)
Fields Physical Chemistry
Institutions Caltech, Beckman Instruments
Doctoral advisor Roscoe G. Dickinson

💰 Net worth: Under Review

Some Arnold Orville Beckman images

Awards and nominations:

Arnold Beckman was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1976. Beckman was inducted into the Junior Achievement US Business Hall of Fame in 1985. In 1987, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in Akron, Ohio. In 2004 he received its Lifetime Achievement Award.

In 1989, Beckman received the Charles Lathrop Parsons Award for public service from the American Chemical Society. He was inducted into the Alpha Chi Sigma Hall of Fame in 1996. In 2000, he received a Special Millennium Edition of the Othmer Gold Medal from the Chemical Heritage Foundation in recognition of his multifaceted contributions to chemical and scientific heritage.

Beckman was awarded the National Medal of Technology in 1988. It is the highest honor the United States can confer to a US citizen for achievements related to technological progress President George H. W. Bush presented Beckman with the National Medal of Science Award in 1989, "for his leadership in the development of analytical instrumentation and for his deep and abiding concern for the vitality of the nation's scientific enterprise.". He had previously been recognized by the Reagan administration as one of about 30 citizens receiving the 1989 Presidential Citizens Medal for exemplary deeds of service.

Beckman was awarded the Order of Lincoln, the state of Illinois' highest honor, by The Lincoln Academy of Illinois, in 1991.

Beckman was awarded the Public Welfare Medal from the National Academy of Sciences in 1999.

The Arnold O. Beckman High School in Irvine, California which has a focus in science education, was named in honor of Arnold O. Beckman. It was not, however, funded by Beckman.

The Beckman Coulter Heritage exhibit, which discusses the work of scientists Arnold Beckman and Wallace Coulter, is located at the Beckman Coulter headquarters in Brea, California.

Biography/Timeline

1900

Arnold Orville Beckman (April 10, 1900 – May 18, 2004) was an American Chemist, Inventor, investor, and philanthropist. While a professor at California Institute of Technology, he founded Beckman Instruments based on his 1934 invention of the pH meter, a device for measuring acidity, later considered to have "revolutionized the study of chemistry and biology". He also developed the DU spectrophotometer, "probably the most important instrument ever developed towards the advancement of bioscience". Beckman funded the first transistor company, thus giving rise to Silicon Valley. After retirement, he and his wife Mabel (1900-1989) were numbered among the top Philanthropists in the United States.

1912

Beckman's mother, Elizabeth, died of diabetes in 1912. Beckman's Father sold his blacksmith shop, and became a travelling salesman for blacksmithing tools and materials. A housekeeper, Hattie Lange, was engaged to look after the Beckman children. Arnold Beckman earned money as a "practice pianist" with a local band, and as an "official cream tester" running a centrifuge for a local store.

1914

In 1914, the Beckman family moved to Normal, located just north of Bloomington, Illinois, so that the young Beckmans could attend University High School in Normal, a "laboratory school" associated with Illinois State University. In 1915 they moved to Bloomington itself, but continued to attend University High, where Arnold Beckman obtained permission to take university level classes from professor of chemistry Howard W. Adams. While still in high school, Arnold started his own Business, "Bloomington Research Laboratories", doing analytic chemistry for the local gas company. He also performed at night as a movie-house Pianist, and played with local dance bands. He graduated valedictorian of his class, with an average of 89.41 over four years, the highest attained.

1918

When Beckman turned 18 in August 1918, he enlisted in the United States Marines. After three months at marine boot camp on Parris Island, South Carolina, he was sent to the Brooklyn Navy Yard, for transit to the war in Europe. Because of a train delay, another unit embarked in place of Beckman's unit. Then, counted into groups in the barracks, Beckman missed being sent to Russia by one space in line. Instead, Arnold spent Thanksgiving at the local YMCA, where he met 17-year-old Mabel Stone Meinzer, who was helping to serve the meal. Mabel would become his wife. A few days later, the armistice was signed, ending the war.

1921

Soon after arriving at the University of Illinois, Beckman joined the Delta Upsilon Fraternity. He was initiated into Zeta Chapter of Alpha Chi Sigma, the chemistry fraternity, in 1921 and the Gamma Alpha Graduate Scientific Fraternity in December 1922.

1925

Beckman married Mabel on June 10, 1925. In 1926 the couple moved back to California and Beckman resumed his studies at Caltech. He became interested in ultraviolet photolysis and worked with his doctoral advisor, Roscoe G. Dickinson, on an instrument to find the Energy of ultraviolet light. It worked by shining the ultraviolet light onto a thermocouple, converting the incident heat into electricity, which drove a galvanometer. After receiving a Ph.D. in photochemistry in 1928 for this application of quantum theory to chemical reactions, Beckman was asked to stay on at Caltech as an instructor and then as a professor. Linus Pauling, another of Roscoe G. Dickinson's graduate students, was also asked to stay on at Caltech.

1933

In 1933, Beckman and his family built a home in Altadena, California, in the foothills and adjacent to Pasadena. They lived in Altadena for over 27 years, raising their family.

1934

Beckman saw an opportunity, and rethinking the project, decided to create a complete chemical instrument which could be easily transported and used by nonspecialists. By October 1934, he had registered patent application US Patent No. 2,058,761 for his "acidimeter", later renamed the pH meter. The Arthur H. Thomas Company, a nationally known scientific instrument dealer based in Philadelphia, was willing to try selling it. Although it was priced expensively at $195, roughly the starting monthly wage for a chemistry professor at that time, it was significantly cheaper than the estimated cost of building a comparable instrument from individual components, about $500. The original pH meter weighed in at nearly 7 kg, but was a substantial improvement over a benchful of delicate equipment. The earliest meter had a design glitch, in that the pH readings changed with the depth of immersion of the electrodes, but Beckman fixed the Problem by sealing the glass bulb of the electrode.

1939

On April 8, 1935, Beckman renamed his company National Technical Laboratories, formally acknowledging his new focus on the making of scientific instruments. The company rented larger quarters at 3330 Colorado Street, and began Manufacturing pH meters. The pH meter is an important device for measuring the pH of a solution, and by 11 May 1939, sales were successful enough that Beckman left Caltech to become the full-time President of National Technical Laboratories. By 1940, Beckman was able to take out a loan to build his own 12,000 square foot factory in South Pasadena.

1940

Linus Pauling at Caltech was also doing secret work for the military. The National Defense Research Committee called a meeting on October 3, 1940, wanting an instrument that could reliably measure oxygen content in a mixture of gases, so that they could measure oxygen conditions in submarines and airplanes. Pauling designed the Pauling oxygen meter for them. Originally approached to supply housing boxes for the meter by Holmes Sturdivant, Pauling's assistant, Beckman was soon asked to produce the entire instrument.

1942

By September 1942, the first of the instruments was being shipped. Approximately 75 IR-1s were made between 1942 and 1945 for use by the US synthetic-rubber effort. The researchers were not allowed to publish or discuss anything related to the new machines until after the war. Other researchers who were independently pursuing the development of infrared spectrometry, were able to publish and to develop instruments during this time without being affected by secrecy restrictions.

1943

In postwar Southern California, including the area of Pasadena where the Beckmans lived, smog was becoming an increasing topic of conversation, as well as an unpleasant experience. First characterized as "gas attacks" in 1943, suspicion fell on a variety of possible causes including the Smudge pots used by orange growers, the smoke produced by local industrial plants, and car exhausts. The Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce was one of the organizations concerned about the possible causes and effects of smog, as it related both to industry (and jobs) and to quality of life in the area. Beckman was involved with the Chamber of Commerce.

1947

In 1947, California governor Earl Warren signed a statewide air pollution control act, authorizing the creation of Air Pollution Control Districts (APCDs) in every county of the state. The Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce asked Beckman to represent them in dealing with creation of a local APCD. The new APCD, when formed, asked Beckman to become the scientific consultant to the Air Pollution Control Officer. He held the position from 1948 to 1952.

1950

Beckman also saw that computers and automation offered a myriad of opportunities for integration into instruments, and the development of new instruments. Beckman Instruments purchased Berkeley Scientific Company in the 1950s, and later developed a Systems Division within Beckman Instruments "to develop and build industrial data systems for automation". Berkeley developed the EASE analog computer, and by 1959 Beckman had contracts with major companies in the aerospace, space, and defense industries, including Boeing Aerospace, Lockheed Aircraft, North American Aviation, and Lear Siegler. The Beckman Systems Division also developed specialized computer systems to handle large volumes of telemetric radio data from satellites and unmanned spacecraft. These included systems to process photographs of the moon, taken by NASA's Ranger spacecraft.

1952

While Haagen-Smit worked out the genesis of smog, Beckman developed an instrument to measure it. On October 7, 1952, he was granted a patent for an "oxygen recorder" that used colorimetric methods to measure the levels of compounds present in the atmosphere. Beckman Instruments eventually developed a range of instruments for various uses in monitoring and treating automobile exhaust and air pollution. They even produced "air quality monitoring vans", customized laboratories on wheels for use by government and industry.

1953

Beckman himself was approached by California governor Goodwin Knight to head a Special Committee on Air Pollution, to propose ways to combat smog. At the end of 1953, the committee made its findings public. The "Beckman Bible" advised key steps to be taken immediately:

1954

In 1954, Beckman Instruments acquired ultracentrifuge maker Spinco (Specialized Instruments Corp.), founded by Edward Greydon Pickels in 1946. This acquisition was the basis of Beckman's Spinco centrifuge division. The division went on to design and manufacture a range of preparative and analytical ultracentrifuges.

1955

In 1955, Beckman was contacted by william Shockley. Shockley, who had been one of Beckman's students at Caltech, led Bell Labs research program into semiconductor Technology. Semiconductors were, in some ways, similar to cermets. Shockley wanted to create a new company, and asked Beckman to serve on the board. After considerable discussion, Beckman became more closely involved: he and Shockley signed a letter of intent to create the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory as a subsidiary of Beckman Instruments, under william Shockley's direction. The new group would specialize in semiconductors, beginning with the automated production of diffused-base transistors.

1956

Because Shockley's aging mother lived in Palo Alto, Shockley wanted to establish the laboratory in nearby Mountain View, California. Frederick Terman, provost at Stanford University, offered the firm space in Stanford's new industrial park. The firm launched in February 1956, the same year that Shockley received the Nobel Prize in Physics along with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect". Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory was the first establishment working on silicon semiconductor devices in what came to be known as Silicon Valley.

1957

Shockley, however, lacked experience in Business and industrial management. Moreover, he decided that the lab would research an invention of his own, the four-layer diode, rather than developing the diffused silicon transistor that he and Beckman had agreed upon. Beckman was reassured by his Engineers that the scientific ideas behind Shockley's project were still sound. When appealed to by members of Shockley's lab, Beckman chose not to interfere with its management. In 1957, eight leading Scientists including Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce left Shockley's group to form a competing startup, Fairchild Semiconductor, which would successfully develop silicon transistors. In 1960, Beckman sold the Shockley subsidiary to the Clevite Transistor Company, ending his formal association with semiconductors. Nonetheless, Beckman had been an essential backer of the new industry in its initial stages.

1958

Helipot Corporation, the spinoff company that Beckman had created when NTL's board were dubious about electronics, was reincorporated into Beckman Instruments and became the Helipot Division in 1958. Helipot researchers were experimenting with cermets, composite materials made by mixing ceramics and metals. Potentiometers made with cermet instead of metal were more heat-resistant, suitable for use at extreme temperatures.

1960

The 1960s were a time of change for the Beckmans. Mabel fell in love with a house by the sea in Corona del Mar near Newport Beach, California. They bought the house in 1960, renovated it, and lived there together until Mabel's death in 1989.

1962

The Beckmans' first major philanthropic gift went to Caltech. In supporting Caltech, they expanded on the long-term relationship that Beckman had begun as a student at Caltech, and continued as a Teacher and trustee. In 1962, they funded the construction of a concert hall, the Beckman Auditorium, designed by Architect Edward Durrell Stone. Over a period of years, they also supported the Beckman Institute, Beckman Auditorium, Beckman Laboratory of Behavioral Sciences, and Beckman Laboratory of Chemical Synthesis at the California Institute of Technology. In the words of Caltech's President emeritus David Baltimore, Beckman "has shaped the destiny of Caltech." The Beckmans are also named in the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology and the Beckman Quadrangle at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

1967

Beckman recognized that air quality would not improve overnight. His work with air quality continued for years, and brought him national attention. In 1967, Beckman was appointed to the Federal Air Quality Board for a four-year term, by President Richard Nixon.

1976

Arnold Beckman was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1976. Beckman was inducted into the Junior Achievement US Business Hall of Fame in 1985. In 1987, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in Akron, Ohio. In 2004 he received its Lifetime Achievement Award.

1977

The Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation was incorporated in September 1977. At the time of Beckman's death, the Foundation had given more than 400 million dollars to a variety of charities and organizations. In 1990, it was considered one of the top ten foundations in California, based on annual gifts. Donations chiefly went to Scientists and scientific causes as well as Beckman's alma maters. He is quoted as saying, "I accumulated my wealth by selling instruments to Scientists,... so I thought it would be appropriate to make contributions to science, and that's been my number one guideline for charity."

1981

Beckman also chose to retire. He and his wife Mabel became increasingly active as Philanthropists, with the stated intention of giving away their personal wealth before their deaths. In 1964, Beckman was asked to become chairman of the Caltech Board of Trustees, and accepted the position. He had been a member of the board since 1953. In 1965, he retired as President of Beckman Instruments, and became instead the chairman of its board of Directors. On November 23, 1981, he agreed to sell the company, which was then merged with SmithKline to form SmithKline Beckman.

1988

Beckman was awarded the National Medal of Technology in 1988. It is the highest honor the United States can confer to a US citizen for achievements related to technological progress President George H. W. Bush presented Beckman with the National Medal of Science Award in 1989, "for his leadership in the development of analytical instrumentation and for his deep and abiding concern for the vitality of the nation's scientific enterprise.". He had previously been recognized by the Reagan administration as one of about 30 citizens receiving the 1989 Presidential Citizens Medal for exemplary deeds of Service.

1989

In 1989, Beckman received the Charles Lathrop Parsons Award for public Service from the American Chemical Society. He was inducted into the Alpha Chi Sigma Hall of Fame in 1996. In 2000, he received a Special Millennium Edition of the Othmer Gold Medal from the Chemical Heritage Foundation in recognition of his multifaceted contributions to chemical and scientific heritage.

1991

Beckman was awarded the Order of Lincoln, the state of Illinois' highest honor, by The Lincoln Academy of Illinois, in 1991.

1998

A major focus became the improvement of science education. Beginning in 1998 the Foundation has provided over $23 million to support K-6 hands-on, research-based science education to school districts in Orange County, California, stimulating schools to integrate science into the K-6 curriculum as a core subject.

1999

Beckman was awarded the Public Welfare Medal from the National Academy of Sciences in 1999.

2004

Arnold Beckman died May 18, 2004, at the age of 104, in hospital in La Jolla, Calif. Mabel and Arnold Beckman are buried beneath a simple headstone in West Lawn Cemetery in Cullom, Illinois, the small town where he was born.

2013

Arnold Beckman attended the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign beginning in the fall of 1918. During his freshman year, he worked with Carl Shipp Marvel on the synthesis of organic mercury compounds, but both men became ill from exposure to toxic mercury. As a result, Beckman changed his major from organic chemistry to physical chemistry, where he worked with Worth Rodebush, T. A. White, and Gerhard Dietrichson. He earned his bachelor's degree in chemical engineering in 1922 and his master's degree in physical chemistry in 1923. For his master's degree he studied the thermodynamics of aqueous ammonia solutions, a subject introduced to him by T. A. White.